James Allison of the US and Tasuku Honjo, the two immunologists, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for a pioneering approach to cancer treatment.
Allison and Honjo showed how different strategies for inhibiting the brakes on the immune system can be used in the treatment of cancer.
Physicist Gerard Mourou from France and...
... Donna Strickland of Canada shared half of the prize for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses.
Arthur Ashkin from Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, US, will receive the other half of prize for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems.
George P. Smith from University of Missouri, Columbia, US and...
...Sir Gregory P. Winter from MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK, were presented the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. They were awarded a half of the prize for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has also decided to award the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with one half to Frances H. Arnold, California Institute of technology, Pasadena, US, for the directed evolution of enzymes.
Denis Mukwege, 63, has long worked to treat thousands of women and girls affected by rape and sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. He has devoted his life to defending these victims.
Nadia Murad, 25, was one of an estimated 3,000 Yazidi women and girls subjected to horrific abuse by ISIS militants. She had shown uncommon courage in repeatedly recounting.
William D. Nordhaus from Yale University, New Haven, US, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis.
Mr. Paul M. Romer from NYU Stern School of Business, New York, US, was also awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis.